This form of art has been around since the 1980's. There are two main factors when creating latte art. You need to combine steamed milk and espresso. First you need the espresso shot to have a creamy brown surface, which is called crema. Then as the milk is poured, the foam separates from the liquid and rises to the top. Your foam should reach to the temperature of around 72°C. If you made your microfoam just right, the foam will rise to create a pattern on the surface. Using your techniques, you then make any type of pattern but the most popular pattern you see in latte art is the rosetta.
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Here are some examples of amazing latte art: